European guidelines aspirin
Summary of European guidelines for aspirin
The purpose of this document is to keep a working list of European guidelines with information on aspirin. The guidelines themselves should be read for further information.
Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
Key Message: “Antiplatelet therapy is not recommended in individuals free from CVD, due to the increased risk of major bleeding.” European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2016
The 2016 European guidelines on CVD prevention review the evidence for antiplatelet therapy in individuals without CVD and conclude that current evidence does not support the use of aspirin in those without CVD due to the risk of a major bleed.
The ESC 2019 guidelines on diabetes (DM), pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular disease state:
- “Patients with DM and symptomatic CVD should be treated no differently to patients without DM
- In patients with DM at moderate CV risk, aspirin for primary prevention is not recommended
- In patients with DM at high/very high risk, aspirin may be considered in primary prevention
In addition the ESC 2019 diabetes guidelines identify the following gaps in the evidence relating to platelet use in people with diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes and CVD prevention [in vivo platelet activation has been reported]
- Body mass and antiplatelet responsiveness especially in those with diabetes and obesity where higher dose strategies need investigation
- Are antithrombotic effects similar in pre-DM and DM?
The ESC does not recommend aspirin for healthy people over 70 following results of the ASPREE trial.
The ESC state in a press release following results of ARRIVE that the benefits of aspirin in primary prevention remain unclear.
In another press release following the ASCEND trial the ESC state that the bleeds and benefits are balanced in people with diabetes using aspirin for primary CVD prevention and that no cancer benefit was found in this study.
Secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease
The 2019 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes recommended aspirin for CVD event prevention at a dose of 75-100 mg daily in patients with previous MI or revascularization. In addition, aspirin 75-100 mg daily can also be considered for people without a history of MI or revascularization but where there is evidence of coronary artery disease using imaging tests.
The 2016 European Guidelines for CVD prevention in clinical practice make the following recommendations for antiplatelet therapy (see table below). This is a based on a careful appraisal of risks versus benefits of aspirin or other antiplatelet therapy. The guidelines state that there is a gap in the evidence concerning new antiplatelet drugs in patients with stable coronary artery disease as well as a gap in the understanding about the use of new antiplatelet drugs used in combination with anticoagulation treatment.
Source 2016 European guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention
Primary prevention of cancer
There is a European Code Against Cancer code which covers healthy lifestyle, work place safety, vaccination programmes and cancer screening.
Aspirin and pre-eclampsia
The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommend that women identified as high risk of pre-eclampsia during first trimester screening should be given aspirin prophylaxis (150mg at night from 11-14 weeks gestation until delivery or the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia). They do not advocate a policy of low-dose aspirin for all pregnant women.
Poon LC, Shennan A, Hyett JA et al The International federation of gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) initiative on pre-eclampsia: a pragmatic guide for first-trimester screening and prevention. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2019; 145 (Suppl.1) 1-33. @ https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/ijgo.12802